## Full Text Searchable PDF User Manual

**User Manual**

**TDS3FFTFFT Application Module**

**071-0349-01**

*P071034901*

071034901

Advanced Test Equipment Rentals

www.atecorp.com 800-404-ATEC (2832)

®

**Established 1981**

Copyright

©

Tektronix, Inc. All rights reserved.

Tektronix products are covered by U.S. and foreign patents,

issued and pending. Information in this publication supercedes

that in all previously published material. Specifications and

price change privileges reserved.

Tektronix, Inc., P.O. Box 500, Beaverton, OR 97077

TEKTRONIX, TEK, TEKPROBE, and Tek Secure are

registered trademarks of Tektronix, Inc.

DPX, WaveAlert, and e*Scope are trademarks of

Tektronix, Inc.

**WARRANTY SUMMARY**

Tektronix warrants that the products that it manufactures and

sells will be free from defects in materials and workmanship

for a period of one (1) year from the date of shipment from an

authorized Tektronix distributor. If a product proves defective

within the respective period, Tektronix will provide repair or

replacement as described in the complete warranty statement.

To arrange for service or obtain a copy of the complete

warranty statement, please contact your nearest Tektronix sales

and service office.

EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN THIS SUMMARY OR THE

APPLICABLE WARRANTY STATEMENT, TEKTRONIX

MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR

IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION THE

IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND

FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT

SHALL TEKTRONIX BE LIABLE FOR INDIRECT,

SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.

1

**Contents**

**Safety Summary**

**2**

**. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **

**Installing the TDS3FFT Application Module**

**5**

**. . . . . . . . **

**Introduction**

**5**

**. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **

**FFT Features**

**6**

**. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **

**Displaying an FFT Waveform**

**7**

**. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **

**FFT Math Menu**

**8**

**. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **

**FFT Windows**

**12**

**. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **

**Aliasing**

**14**

**. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **

**FFT Examples**

**16**

**. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . **

**Contacting Tektronix**

Product

Support

For questions about using Tektronix measurement

products, call toll free in North America:

1-800-833-9200

6:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Pacific time

Or contact us by e-mail:

support@tektronix.com

For product support outside of North America,

contact your local Tektronix distributor or sales

office.

Service

Support

Tektronix offers a range of services, including

Extended Warranty Repair and Calibration

services. Contact your local Tektronix distributor or

sales office for details.

For a listing of worldwide service centers, visit our

web site.

Toll-free

Number

In North America:

1-800-833-9200

An operator can direct your call.

Postal

Address

Tektronix, Inc.

Department or name (if known)

P.O. Box 500

Beaverton, OR 97077

USA

Web Site

www.tektronix.com

**2**

**Safety Summary**

To avoid potential hazards, use this product only as

specified. While using this product, you may need to

access other parts of the system. Read the *General SafetySummary* in other system manuals for warnings and

cautions related to operating the system.

**Preventing Electrostatic Damage**

**CAUTION.**

** **Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can

*damage components in the oscilloscope and itsaccessories.*

*To prevent ESD, observe these*

precautions when directed to do so.

precautions when directed to do so.

**Use a Ground Strap.**

Wear a grounded antistatic wrist strap

to discharge the static voltage from your body while

installing or removing sensitive components.

**Use a Safe Work Area.**

Do not use any devices capable of

generating or holding a static charge in the work area

where you install or remove sensitive components.

Avoid handling sensitive components in areas that have a

floor or benchtop surface capable of generating a static

charge.

**3**

**Handle Components Carefully.**

Do not slide sensitive

components over any surface. Do not touch exposed

connector pins. Handle sensitive components as little as

possible.

**Transport and Store Carefully.**

Transport and store sensitive

components in a static-protected bag or container.

**Manual Storage**

The oscilloscope front cover has a convenient place to

store this manual.

5

**Installing the TDS3FFT Application Module**

Refer to the *TDS3000 & TDS3000B Series ApplicationModule Installation Instructions* for instructions on

installing and testing the application module.

**Introduction**

The FFT application module adds FFT (Fast Fourier

Transform) measurement capabilities to your oscillo-

scope. The FFT process mathematically converts the

standard time-domain signal (repetitive or single-shot

acquisition) into its frequency components, providing

spectrum analysis capabilities.

Being able to quickly look at a signal’s frequency

components and spectrum shape is a powerful research

and analysis tool. FFT is an excellent troubleshooting aid

for:

H

Testing impulse response of filters and systems

H

Measuring harmonic content and distortion in

systems

H

Identifying and locating noise and interference

sources

H

Analyzing vibration

H

Analyzing harmonics in 50 and 60 Hz power lines

**4**

6

**FFT Features**

The FFT application module provides the following

features:

**FFT Windows**

Four FFT windows (Rectangular, Hamming, Hanning,

and Blackman-Harris) let you match the optimum

window to the signal you are analyzing. The Rectangular

window is best for nonperiodic events such as transients,

pulses, and one-shot acquisitions. The Hamming,

Hanning, and Blackman-Harris windows are better for

periodic signals.

**Analyze Repetitive, Single-Shot, and Stored Waveforms**

You can display an FFT waveform on any actively-ac-

quired signal (periodic or one-shot), the last acquired

signal, or any signal stored in reference memory.

**dB or Linear RMS Scales**

The FFT vertical graticule can be set to either dB or

Linear RMS. A dB scale is useful when the frequency

component magnitudes cover a wide dynamic range,

letting you show both lesser and greater- magnitude

frequency components on the same display. A Linear

scale is useful when the frequency component magni-

tudes are all close in value, allowing direct comparison

of their magnitudes.

7

**Time Signals and FFT Waveforms Displayed Together**

The time signals and FFT waveforms can be shown

together on the display. The time signal highlights the

problem; the FFT waveform helps you determine the

cause of the problem.

**Displaying an FFT Waveform**

1.

Set the source signal Vertical SCALE so that the

signal peaks do not go off screen. Off-screen signal

peaks can result in FFT waveform errors.

2.

Set the Horizontal SCALE control to show five or

more cycles of the source signal. Showing more

cycles means the FFT waveform shows more

frequency components, provides better frequency

resolution, and reduces aliasing.

If the signal is a single-shot (transient) signal, make

sure that the entire signal (transient event and ringing

or noise) is displayed and centered on the screen.

3.

Push the Vertical **MATH** button to show the math

menu.

4.

Push the **FFT** screen button to show the FFT side

menu.

5.

Select a signal source. You can do an FFT on any

channel or any stored reference waveform.

6.

Select the appropriate vertical scale and FFT window.

7.

Use zoom controls and the cursors to magnify and

measure the FFT waveform.

9

H

Signals that have a DC component or offset can cause

incorrect FFT waveform component magnitude

values. To minimize the DC component, choose AC

Coupling on the source signal.

H

To reduce random noise and aliased components in

repetitive or single-shot events, set the oscilloscope

acquisition mode to average over 16 or more samples.

Average mode attenuates signals not synchronized

with the trigger.

H

Do not use the Average acquisition mode if the

source signal contains frequencies of interest that are

not synchronized with the trigger rate.

H

Do not use Peak Detect and Envelope modes with

FFT. Peak Detect and Envelope modes can add

significant distortion to the FFT results.

H

For transient (impulse, one-shot) signals, set the

oscilloscope to trigger on the transient pulse in order

to center the pulse information in the waveform

record.

8

**FFT Math Menu**

**Bottom**

**Side**

**Description**

FFT

Set FFT

Source to

Sets the FFT signal source.

Valid input sources are Ch 1

and Ch 2 (2-channel instru-

ments), Ch 1 through Ch 4

(4-channel instruments), and

Ref 1 through Ref 4 (all instru-

ments).

Set FFT Vert

Scale to

Sets the display vertical scale

units. Available scales are

dBV RMS and Linear RMS.

Set FFT

Window to

Sets which window function

(Hanning, Hamming, Blackman-

Harris, or Rectangular) to apply

to the source signal. Refer to

page 12 for more FFT window

information.

**FFT Source Key Points **

H

Push the side menu button to select the source.

H

Using FFT slows down the oscilloscope’s response

time in Normal acquisition mode (10k record length).

H

A waveform acquired in Normal acquisition mode

has a lower noise floor and better frequency

resolution than a waveform acquired in Fast Trigger

mode.

10

**FFT Vertical Scale Key Points **

H

Push the side menu button to select a scale. Available

scales are dBV RMS and Linear RMS.

H

Use the Vertical POSITION and SCALE knobs to

vertically move and rescale the FFT waveform.

H

To display FFT waveforms with a large dynamic

range, use the dBV RMS scale. The dBV scale

displays component magnitudes using a log scale,

expressed in dB relative to 1 V

RMS

, where 0 dB =1

V

RMS,

or in source waveform units (such as amps for

current measurements).

H

To display FFT waveforms with a small dynamic

range, use the Linear RMS scale. The Linear RMS

scale lets you display and directly compare

components with similar magnitude values.

**Nyquist Frequency Key Point **

H

To determine the Nyquist frequency, push the

ACQUIRE menu button. This displays the current

sample rate on the bottom right area of the screen.

The Nyquist frequency is one-half of the sample rate.

For example, if the sample rate is 25.0 MS/s, then the

Nyquist frequency is 12.5 MHz.

11

**Zooming an FFT Display. **

Use the Zoom button

,

along with horizontal POSITION and SCALE controls,

to magnify FFT waveforms. When you change the zoom

factor, the FFT waveform is horizontally magnified

about the center vertical graticule, and vertically magni-

fied about the math waveform marker. Zooming does not

affect the actual time base or trigger position settings.

**NOTE. **

*FFT waveforms are calculated using the*

*entire source waveform record. Zooming in on aregion of either the source or FFT waveformwill not recalculate the FFT waveform for thatregion.*

**Measuring FFT Waveforms Using Cursors. **

You can use

cursors to take two measurements on FFT waveforms:

magnitude (in dB or signal source units) and frequency

(in Hz). dB magnitude is referenced to 0 dB, where 0 dB

equals 1 V

RMS

. Use horizontal cursors (H Bars) to

measure magnitude and vertical cursors (V Bars) to

measure frequency.

Magnitude cursors

Frequency cursors

13

**FFT Window**

**Characteristics**

**Best for measuring**

Blackman-

Harris

Best magnitude,

worst at resolving

frequencies.

Predominantly single fre-

quency waveforms to look

for higher order harmonics.

Hamming,

Hanning

Better frequency,

poorer magnitude

accuracy than

Rectangular.

Hamming has

slightly better fre-

quency resolution

than Hanning.

Sine, periodic, and narrow-

band random noise.

Transients or bursts where

the signal levels before and

after the event are signifi-

cantly different.

Rectangula

r

Best frequency,

worst magnitude

resolution. This is

essentially the

same as no win-

dow.

Transients or bursts where

the signal levels before and

after the event are nearly

equal.

Equal-amplitude sine waves

with frequencies that are

very close.

Broad-band random noise

with a relatively slow varying

spectrum.

12

**FFT Windows**

Applying a window function to the source waveform

record changes the waveform so that the start and stop

values are close to each other, reducing FFT waveform

discontinuities. This results in an FFT waveform that

more accurately represents the source signal frequency

components. The ’shape’ of the window determines how

well it resolves frequency or magnitude information.

Source

waveform

Source waveform

after windowing

Window

function

(Hanning)

FFT

×

**=**

Point-by-point

multiply

With windowing

Waveform

data points

14

**Aliasing**

Problems occur when the oscilloscope acquires a signal

containing frequency components that are greater than

the Nyquist frequency (1/2 the sample rate). The fre-

quency components that are above the Nyquist frequen-

cy are undersampled and appear to “fold back” around

the right edge of the graticule, showing as lower frequen-

cy components in the FFT waveform. These incorrect

components are called aliases.

Frequency

Amplitude

Aliased frequencies

Actual frequencies

0 Hz

Nyquist frequency

(

½

sample rate)

Use the following methods to eliminate aliases:

H

Increase the sample rate by adjusting the Horizontal

SCALE to a faster frequency setting. Since you

increase the Nyquist frequency as you increase the

horizontal frequency, the aliased frequency

components should appear at their proper frequency.

15

If the increased number of frequency components

shown on the screen makes it difficult to measure

individual components, use the Zoom button to

magnify the FFT waveform.

H

Use a filter on the source signal to bandwidth limit

the signal to frequencies below that of the Nyquist

frequency. If the components you are interested in are

below the built-in bandwidth settings (20 MHz

bandwidth for all oscilloscopes, 150 MHz bandwidth

for 300 MHz and 500 MHz oscilloscopes), set the

source signal bandwidth to the appropriate value.

Push the Vertical MENU button to access the source

channel bandwidth menu.

17

**1**

**M**

**T**

**1**

**2**

**3**

The first component at 20 MHz (figure label 1) is the

source signal fundamental frequency. The FFT wave-

form also shows a second-order harmonic at 40 MHz (2)

and a fourth-order harmonic at 80 MHz (3). The pres-

ence of components 2 and 3 indicate that the system is

distorting the signal. The even harmonics suggest a

possible difference in signal gain on half of the signal

cycle.

16

**FFT Examples**

**FFT Example 1**

A pure sine wave can be input into an amplifier to

measure distortion; any amplifier distortion will

introduce harmonics in the amplifier output. Viewing the

FFT of the output can determine if low-level distortion is

present.

You are using a 20 MHz signal as the amplifier test

signal. You would set the oscilloscope and FFT parame-

ters as listed in the table:

**FFT Example 1 Settings **

**Control**

**Setting**

CH 1 Coupling

AC

Acquisition Mode

Average 16

Horizontal Resolution

Normal (10k points)

Horizontal SCALE

100 ns

FFT Source

Ch 1

FFT Vert Scale

dBV

FFT Window

Blackman-Harris

18

**FFT Example 2**

Noise in mixed digital/analog circuits can be easily

observed with an oscilloscope. However, identifying the

sources of the observed noise can be difficult.

The FFT waveform displays the frequency content of the

noise; you may then be able to associate those frequen-

cies with known system frequencies, such as system

clocks, oscillators, read/write strobes, display signals, or

switching power supplies.

The highest frequency on the example system is

40 MHz. To analyze the example signal you would set

the oscilloscope and FFT parameters as listed in the

following table:

**FFT Example 2 Settings **

**Control**

**Setting**

CH 1 Coupling

AC

Acquisition Mode

Sample

Horizontal Resolution

Normal (10k points)

Horizontal SCALE

4.00

m

s

Bandwidth

150 MHz

FFT Source

Ch 1

FFT Vert Scale

dBV

FFT Window

Hanning

19

**1**

**M**

**T**

**1**

**2**

Note the component at 31 MHz (figure label 1); this

coincides with a 31 MHz memory strobe signal in the

example system. There is also a frequency component at

62 MHz (figure label 2), which is the second harmonic

of the strobe signal.

20