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Gentner Hybrid Coupler Installation And Operation Manual

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Type: Installation And Operation Manual
Category: Telephone Accessories
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Hybrid Coupler

Installation and

Operations Manual

 


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Gentner Communications Corporation is committed to protecting the environment
and preserving our natural resources.

This manual has been printed entirely on recycled paper.

© Copyright 1997 Gentner Communications Corporation.  All rights reserved.  No part of this manual may be
reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission from Gentner Communications Corporation.
Printed in the United States of America.  Original version, 1/93.  Gentner Communications Corporation reserves
specification privileges.  Information in this manual is subject to change without notice.

Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual
Gentner Part No. 800-035-0011 (Rev. 2.00)
May 1997

Manual Development: Bill Kilpack

Artwork and IIlustrations: Jim Wright, Michael Greenhalgh, Bill Kilpack

Copyright

Information

 


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Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual    Page iii

Technical or Setup Assistance

Telephone: 800.945.7730 (USA) or 801.975.7200 (worldwide) • Worldwide Web @ http://www.gentner.com

Contents

Introduction

1

Warranty Registration

1

Unpacking

1

Product Description

2

Hybrid Coupler

2

Front-Panel Controls

2

Back-Panel Connectors

2

Before You Install

3

Telephone Line Requirements

2

Equipment Placement

2

Installation

3

Completed Installation

3

Step 1 — Back-Panel Connections

3

Step 2 — Limiter Option

3

Null Adjustment

5

Step 1 — Verify Proper Installation

5

Step 2 — Connect Typical Audio

5

Step 3 — Place a Call

5

Step 4 — Adjust Null

5

Operation

6

Recording Daily Phone Calls

6

Simple Remotes/Production Studio Feeds

7

Specifications

9

Warranty

8

Appendix A: Telephone Theory

10

Appendix B: Theory of Operation

11

Appendix C: Schematics

12

 


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Page iv    Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual

Technical or Setup Assistance

Telephone: 800.945.7730 (USA) or 801.975.7200 (worldwide) • Worldwide Web @ http://www.gentner.com

List of Figures

Figure 1. Equipment diagram

1

Figure 2. Hybrid Coupler front panel

2

Figure 3. Hybrid Coupler back panel

2

Figure 4. Hybrid Coupler completed installation

3

Figure 5. Send input connector

3

Figure 6. RJ11C jack

3

Figure 7. Berg jumper locations

4

Figure 8. Hybrid Coupler front panel

4

Figure 9. Null adjustment

5

Figure 10. Hybrid Coupler PC board

6

Figure 11. Hybrid Coupler front panel

6

Figure 12. Recording phone calls diagram

7

Figure 13. Simple remote diagram

7

Figure 14. Subscriber interface circuit schematic

10

Figure 15. Ideal telephone line

10

 


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Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual    Page  1

Technical or Setup Assistance

Telephone: 800.945.7730 (USA) or 801.975.7200 (worldwide) • Worldwide Web @ http://www.gentner.com

Congratulations on purchasing the Hybrid Coupler.  The Hybrid Coupler is a
two-way passive telephone coupler that allows the operator to simultaneously
send and receive audio over a single telephone line.  The unit connects directly
to the telephone line and can be used with almost any analog or digital
telephone system.

This manual explains how to install, set up and operate the Hybrid Coupler in a
step-by-step format.  It also supplies instructions on how to resolve technical
problems, should any arise.

If you need any additional information on how to install, set up or operate your
system, please contact us at Gentner Communications at the location noted
below.  We welcome and encourage your comments so we can continue to
improve our products and serve your needs.

Gentner Communications Corporation

1825 Research Way

Salt Lake City, UT  84119

TEL: Worldwide 801.975.7200  In U.S.A. 800.945.7730

FAX: Worldwide 801.977.0087  In U.S.A. 800.933.5107

FAX-On-Demand 24-Hour Information Service 800.695.8110

FAX-On-Demand International Line 801.974.3661

Worldwide Web Page @ http:\\www.gentner.com

Warranty Registration

Please register your Hybrid Coupler by completing the self-addressed,
postage prepaid warranty registration card and return it to Gentner
Communications by mail. You may also FAX it to the above listed fax
number or call Gentner Communications. When your product is properly
registered, Gentner Communications will be able to serve you better should
you require technical assistance or desire to receive upgrades, new product
information, etc.

Ensure that the following items (See Figure 1, below.) were received with your
shipment:

Introduction

SHIPPING NOTE:
Gentner Communications is not responsible for product damage incurred during
shipment.  You must make claims directly with the carrier.  Inspect your shipment
carefully for obvious signs of damage.  If the shipment appears to be damaged,
retain the original boxes and packing material for inspection by the carrier.
Contact your carrier immediately.

Unpacking

Figure 1. Equipment diagram

 


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Page 2    Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual

Technical or Setup Assistance

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Hybrid Coupler

The Hybrid Coupler is a two-way, passive telephone coupler.  This means
that it allows the operator to simultaneously send and receive audio over a
single telephone line without external or internal power for operation.

Its primary application is sending and/or receiving audio over telephone
lines.  The unit connects directly to the telephone line and can be used with
almost any analog or digital telephone system.

Front-Panel Controls

When the switch on the front of the Hybrid Coupler (See Figure 2, left.) is in
the TAP position [3], the internal hybrid coil is connected to the telephone
line through a coupling capacitor.  This permits the unit to monitor the
telephone line without seizing or loading it.

With the switch on the front of the Hybrid Coupler in the SEIZE position [2],
the hybrid coil is directly connected to the telephone line, which terminates
the line.  This allows the operator to hang up the telephone set and maintain
an open telephone line.

When in the OFF position [2], the internal hybrid coil is not connected to the
telephone circuit.

The Hybrid Coupler’s internal hybrid coil provides approximately 10dB of
audio separation (null) between the incoming receive and outgoing send
audio.  The amount of separation can be adjusted slightly with the front-
panel NULL trim pot [4].

Back-Panel Connectors

The Hybrid Coupler’s telephone LINE [8] and SET [7] connectors (See
Figure 3, left.) are paralleled connections to an internal hybrid coil.

The SEND [5] and RECEIVE [6] jacks are unbalanced audio feeds to and
from the internal hybrid coil.

The Hybrid Coupler is designed to couple seamlessly with almost any analog or
digital telephone line.  However, to maximize your installation process, prepare
your site by taking the following factors into consideration:

Telephone Line Requirements

The Hybrid Coupler accommodates standard telephone lines and connects to
the telephone system (analog or digital) with a standard RJ11C modular
jack.  If you do not have an RJ11C jack where you want to install your
Hybrid Coupler, call your telephone company for installation.

Equipment Placement

The Hybrid Coupler, being portable, is designed for easy placement in any of
a wide variety of small, enclosed spaces.  The only requiremnt is that it be
placed close enough for cable connections to telephone line and system and
any other outside audio equipment.

Product

Description

Before You

Install

Figure 3. Hybrid Coupler back panel

Figure 2. Hybrid Coupler front panel

 


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Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual    Page  3

Technical or Setup Assistance

Telephone: 800.945.7730 (USA) or 801.975.7200 (worldwide) • Worldwide Web @ http://www.gentner.com

The Hybrid Coupler is designed for easy installation and setup.  All necessary
interface connections are made through rear-panel jacks.  This allows for easy
installation, removal and service.  To install your Hybrid Coupler, follow these
instructions:

Completed Installation

When installation is complete, the Hybrid Coupler configuration should
resemble Figure 4 (left).

Step 1 — Back-Panel Connections

Send
The Hybrid Coupler’s SEND input [5] (See Figure 3, previous page; Figure
5, left.) consists of a single quarter-inch phone jack. Any audio applied to
this input will be sent to the caller.  The level of send audio is determined by
the level of the source and the position of an internal limiter jumper option.
The limiter option is detailed in Step 2 — Limiter Option (Page 4).

AUDIO WIRING NOTE:
To connect an active balanced audio source to the Hybrid Coupler’s SEND input
or RECEIVE output, Gentner Communications recommends that a ground of
source equipment be connected to the SLEEVE and that the (+) audio side by
connected to the TIP.  If a transformer-coupled balance source is to be used, in
addition to the wiring noted in Figure 4, the (-) audio should be connected to
sleeve.

Receive
The Hybrid Coupler’s RECEIVE output [6] also consists of a single quarter-
inch phone jack.  This output is unbalanced (referenced to the unit’s ground)
and has the electrical connections specified in Figure 5 (above):

When active, the unit delivers caller audio to this connector.  The Hybrid
Coupler does not amplify its receive port; thus, the output is typically at
phone line level or -20dBm.

RECEIVE OUTPUT NOTE:
The Hybrid Coupler’s receive output is never muted.  In the OFF position, the
SEND to RECEIVE level is approximately unity gain with severe distortion.

Set
The SET connector [7] is a standard RJ11C connector (Figure 6, left).  Plug a
telephone to this jack.

Line
The LINE connector [8] is also a standard RJ11C connector.  Plug the
telephone line into this jack.

Step 2 — Limiter Option

The Hybrid Coupler incorporates both a send-level limiter and a receive-level
limiter.  These limiters are maximum level clippers.  If the limiter is
jumpered ON, the maximum possible transmitted or received level is 2.2V
peak to peak (approximately 0dBm).

Installation

Figure 5. Send input connector

Figure 6. RJ11C jack

Figure 4. Hybrid Coupler completed
installation

 


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Page 4    Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual

Technical or Setup Assistance

Telephone: 800.945.7730 (USA) or 801.975.7200 (worldwide) • Worldwide Web @ http://www.gentner.com

Gentner Communications ships the Hybrid Coupler with these limiters
jumpered ON.  If this default setting is sufficient, installation is complete.

However, if these limiters need to be jumpered OFF in your application,
follow the instructions below:

Step 1
Disconnect all inputs and outputs.

Step 2
Remove the two front panel mounting self-tapping, black anodized screws
and place them where they will not be lost.

Step 3
Slide the internal assembly of the unit out of its enclosure by its black bezel.

Step 4
The berg jumper strip for the send and receive limiters are clearly marked on
the printed circuit board (See Figure 7, below.), and can be easily determined
which position is shunted or active.

Installation

Continued

Step 5
To change the shunting post from ON to OFF (or vice versa) simply lift the
jumper off the berg dual-row strip and move it to the position required.

Step 6
Reassemble the unit and reinstall it.

Installation is now complete.

Figure 7. Berg jumper locations

 


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Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual    Page  5

Technical or Setup Assistance

Telephone: 800.945.7730 (USA) or 801.975.7200 (worldwide) • Worldwide Web @ http://www.gentner.com

The Hybrid Coupler, being an analog device, must be adjusted to optimize its
performance.  Gentner Communications test personnel adjust the Hybrid
Coupler’s null setting to a point acceptable for most applications.  However, in
some applications, it is necessary to change the null setting to accommodate line
conditions of external equipment.  Follow these step-by-step instructions:

Step 1 — Verify Proper Installation

Ensure that the Hybrid Coupler is properly installed.

Step 2 — Connect Typical Audio

Connect typical send audio to the SEND jack (i.e. recorded messages, test
tones, outputs of preamps, etc.).

CRITICAL ADJUSTMENT NOTE:
Gentner Communications recommends (if possible) connecting a 400Hz, 0dBm
test tone to the SEND input if critical null adjustments are required.

Step 3 — Place a Call

Call the Hybrid Coupler from a different telephone set and then move the
front panel switch to the SEIZE position [1] (figure 8, left).  (This connects
the call just placed through the Hybrid Coupler.)

Set the telephone handset down in a quiet environment to prevent caller
audio from being detected as send-to-caller distortion.

Step 4 — Adjust Null

Using a small flat screwdriver (See Figure 9, left.), adjust the front-panel
NULL trim pot [4] until the send source appears at the RECEIVE output at
its lowest level.

NULL ADJUSTMENT NOTE:
A quick way to judge receive level is to attach an AC voltmeter to the RECEIVE
output jack between the sleeve and tip.

The Hybrid Coupler also has additional circuit connections to add extra
resistive and capacitive components if the null adjustment needs further fine
tuning.  These connections are screened C2 and R5 on the unit’s printed
circuit board assembly (Figure 10, next page, top).  Gentner Communications
ships the Hybrid Coupler  with  quick solder-free clips for these connections.

Please use wise electro-mechanical techniques when making any
modification to prevent damaging the Hybrid Coupler.

RESISTANCE NOTE:
By adding a small additional capacitor to the C2 posts, the null deepens by only
2–3dB at a single frequency.  Rarely will additional resistance be required
(besides the front panel 1kOhm NULL trim pot) to optimize the Hybrid Coupler’s
hybrid performance.

Null Adjustment

Figure 8. Hybrid Coupler front panel

Figure 9. Null adjustment

 


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Page 6    Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual

Technical or Setup Assistance

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The Hybrid Coupler is easy to control. By positioning the toggle switch on the
unit’s front panel (See Figure 11, left.), the  Hybrid Coupler can be either OFF
[2], SEIZEd [1] or TAPped [3] to the telephone line.

If this switch is in the OFF position [2], the Hybrid Coupler is not connected to
the phone circuit.

If this switch is in the SEIZE position [1], the Hybrid Coupler is connected.  In
other words, any telephone line plugged to the rear panel LINE jack will be
connected, and the SEND and RECEIVE jacks will be active.

If this switch is in the TAP position [3], the Hybrid Coupler is only monitoring
the phone circuit.  This means that if the phone line connected to the unit is in
use (either by having a telephone instrument connected to the SET rear panel
modular jack off-hook, or if supervisory current is being drawn elsewhere from
that phone loop), the Hybrid Coupler’s SEND and RECEIVE jacks will become
active.

Recording Daily Phone Calls

A typical application for the Hybrid Coupler is monitoring and/or recording
phone calls in progress with the TAP feature.  To do this, follow the steps
below:

Step 1
Verify proper installation.

Null Adjustment

Continued

Operation

Figure 11. Hybrid Coupler front panel

Figure 10. Hybrid Coupler PC board

 


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Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual    Page  7

Technical or Setup Assistance

Telephone: 800.945.7730 (USA) or 801.975.7200 (worldwide) • Worldwide Web @ http://www.gentner.com

Step 2
Connect a telephone to the Hybrid Coupler’s SET jack and a tape machine’s
record input to the Hybrid Coupler’s RECEIVE jack (Figure 12, left).

Step 3
Call a some one and flip the switch on front of Hybrid Coupler to the TAP
position [3].

Step 4
Start recording.  The recorder will now pick up both ends of the
conversation on the telephone line.

Step 5
When the conversation is complete, hang up the telephone set, return the
Hybrid Coupler switch to the OFF position [2] and stop the recorder.

Simple Remotes/Production Studio Feeds

The Hybrid Coupler can be used to provide fast connection to the telephone
network for remote audio feeds, news actualities, field reporting, etc.  To do
this, follow these instructions:

Step 1
Verify proper installation.

Step 2
Connect audio feed output to the Hybrid Coupler’s SEND jack (Figure 13,
left).

Step 3
Call someone, move the Hybrid Coupler switch to the SEIZE position [1]
and hang up the telephone set.  (This prevents double terminating the
telephone line.)

The Hybrid Coupler is now set up to send the audio feed down the telephone
line to the second party.

Step 4
When the audio feed is complete, return the Hybrid Coupler switch to the
OFF position [2] to hang up the telephone line.

Figure 12. Recording phone calls diagram

Figure 13. Simple remote diagram

 


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Page 8    Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual

Technical or Setup Assistance

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Specifications

Hybrid Coupler

Dimensions
4.17"W x 1.61"H x 6.97"D

Weight
1 lb./.5kg (dry)

2 lbs./1kg (shipping)

Connectors
LINE:

RJ11C

LINE:

RJ11C

SEND:

1/4" phone Jack, -10dBm nominal, unbalanced 600 Ohms,
internal limiter selectable

RECEIVE: 1/4" phone Jack, -20dBm nominal, unbalanced 600 Ohms,

internal limiter selectable

Audio Performance

Frequency Response
250Hz to 3.2kHz, +/- .1dB

Signal-to-Noise Ratio
> 60dB

Distortion
< .1% THD

Null
10dB nominal @ 1kHz, adjustable

SPECIFICAITON NOTE:
All specifications referenced to -10dBm telephone level and an ideal telephone
line.

All specifications are subject to change without notice.

 


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Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual    Page  9

Technical or Setup Assistance

Telephone: 800.945.7730 (USA) or 801.975.7200 (worldwide) • Worldwide Web @ http://www.gentner.com

Gentner Communications Corporation (Manufacturer) warrants that this product is free of defects in both materials and
workmanship. Should any part of this equipment be defective, the Manufacturer agrees, at its option, to:

A. Repair or replace any defective part free of charge (except transportation charges) for a period of one
year from the date of the original purchase, provided the owner returns the equipment to the Manufacturer at the
address set forth below. No charge will be made for parts of labor during this period;

B. Furnish replacement for any defective parts in the equipment for a period of one year from the date of original
purchase. Replacement parts shall be furnished without charge, except labor and transportation.

This Warranty excludes assembled products not manufactured by the Manufacturer whether or not they are
incorporated in a Manufacturer product or sold under a Manufacturer part or model number.

THIS WARRANTY IS VOID IF:

A.  The equipment has been damaged by negligence, accident, act of God, or mishandling, or has not been operated in
accordance with the procedures described in the operating and technical instructions; or,

B. The equipment has been altered or repaired by other than the Manufacturer or an authorized service representative
of the Manufacturer; or,

C. Adaptations or accessories other than those manufactured or provided by the Manufacturer have been made or
attached to the equipment which, in the determination of the Manufacturer, shall have affected the performance, safety
or reliability of the equipment; or,

D. The equipments original serial number has been modified or removed.

NO OTHER WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR USE, APPLIES TO THE EQUIPMENT, nor is any person or company authorized
to assume any warranty for the Manufacturer or any other liability in connection with the sale of the Manufacturer's
products.

Manufacturer does not assume any responsibility for consequential damages, expenses, or loss of revenue or property,
inconvenience, or interruption in operation experienced by the customer due to a malfunction in the purchased
equipment. No warranty service performed on any product shall extend the applicable warranty period.

In case of unsatisfactory operation, the purchaser shall promptly notify the Manufacturer at the address set forth below
in writing, giving full particulars as to the defects or unsatisfactory operation. Upon receipt of such notice, the
Manufacturer will give instructions respecting the shipment of the equipment, or such other matters as it elects to
honor this warranty as above provided. This warranty does not cover damage to the equipment during shipping and the
Manufacturer assumes no responsibility for such damage. All shipping costs shall be paid by the customer.

This warranty extends only to the original purchaser and is not assignable or transferable.

Gentner Communications Corporation, 1825 Research Way, Salt Lake City, Utah 84119

Warranty

 


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Page 10    Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual

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To better understand the application of Gentner telephone products, it is helpful
to obtain a basic understanding of the telephone system.

The telephone company provides a single pair of wires for every telephone line
within the service area of the Central Office (CO). The pair of wires are twisted to
form a balanced transmission line.  This twisting of two identical wires provides
for the rejection of hum and noise on the telephone line. This single pair of wires
provides simultaneous transmission of both send and receive audio, DC current to
power the user’s telephone, and ringing voltage signals.  The diagram below
(Figure 14) is a schematic of the subscriber interface circuit at the CO.

Appendix A: Telephone

Theory

The two wires coming from the CO are called tip and ring.  These names carry
over from the days of the old manual switchboard when an operator manually
interconnected callers with patch cords. The tip and the ring terminals of the plug
on the patch cord provided the connections to the caller’s telephone.  It is very
easy to identify tip and ring using a standard voltmeter; as Figure 14 indicates,
tip is positive and ring is negative. The open circuit voltage on the telephone line
is 48V.

When a telephone handset is taken off hook, current is drawn from the CO
battery, closing the contacts of K1.  These contacts tell the CO switching
mechanism that the user demands service. The switch then provides dial tone and
waits for the user to dial a number.  If an incoming call is to be directed to a user,
the CO switch will operate K2 and apply 90V (RMS) at 20Hz to tip and ring.
This voltage now superimposed on the 48Vdc will cause the user’s instrument to
ring. When the called party takes the instrument off hook, K1 will close and the
switch will interconnect the two parties.

Figure 15 (below) shows what the ideal telephone line looks like (simply two
conductors between the user and the CO) compared to the actual telephone line.

Figure 14. Subscriber interface circuit schematic

Any wire conductor has a small amount of resistance and inductive reactance. As
we increase the length of this conductor beyond 100 feet, these two components
begin to have significant effects at audio frequencies.  In addition, two of these
conductors are twisted together, creating a significant amount of shunt

Figure 15. Ideal telephone line

 


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Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual    Page  11

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capacitance between the two wires.  This distributed inductance, resistance and
capacitance causes a loss at the higher audio frequencies. These two deficiencies
in tandem limit the frequency response of the telephone line to a band that
extends from 300–3,300Hz.  Since capacitive and inductive reactance both
change with frequency, the complex impedance of the telephone line will be
different at every frequency in the voice band. The purpose of a telephone hybrid
is to separate the full-duplex audio of a balanced phone circuit into separate send
and receive audio ports.

This separation is very important to preserve the acoustic quality of the send
audio. When audio is sent to a caller, it is transmitted on the telephone line.  The
acoustics of this audio are altered by the telephone line’s frequency response. If
some of this altered send audio gets mixed with the caller audio, the audio will
sound hollow.

The measurement of a telephone hybrid’s performance is how well  it isolates, or
attenuates, the send audio input port from the caller audio output port. This
isolation can be optimized by adjusting the hybrid’s null controls. When the
impedance of the null circuit matches the impedance of the telephone line
connected to the hybrid, a perfect null or attenuation of the send audio will result.
However, as discussed earlier,  the impedance of the telephone line is different for
every frequency in the voice band, thus, making the perfect null impossible to
achieve.  Even though a perfect null is impossible, very satisfactory results can be
obtained using this method for most applications.

The Hybrid Coupler is a simple device, both technically and in operation.  Please
refer to Appendix C: Schematics (next page) during the following discussion.

Telephone line connection to the unit is made via two RJ11 modular connectors.
Pins 2 and 3 of these two connectors are tied together to allow simultaneous use
of the unit and an attendant telephone set.  The varistor (V1) is placed across the
telephone line inside the unit for surge protection.

The Hybrid Coupler uses a PREM SPT-183 telephone coil to provide termination
to the phone line. This coil is wound to provide a receive and send port with
approximately 6dB of isolation.  The components R6, the front panel 1kOhm
trim pot, and C5, the .01uF null capacitor, allow for further impedance matching.

RFI protection is provided via L1, L2, FB1 and FB2 for both the send and receive
ports of the T1 coil.

The resistors, R1–R4, are all 301 Ohm 1% components.  These provide
connection to the SEND and RECEIVE jacks and proper impedance matching
for the PREM coil.

The send and receive limiters are constructed of back-to-back 1N4148 diodes,
CR1 through CR8.  Both of these limiters can be removed from the circuit via
JPl, JP2, JP3 and JP4 placement of a berg shorting post.

Appendix B: Theory of

Operation

 


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Page 12    Hybrid Coupler Installation and Operations Manual

Technical or Setup Assistance

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Appendix C:

Schematics

 


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“Our vision is to provide our customers with

the total audio solution for conferencing.”

 


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G

ENTNER

 C

OMMUNICATIONS

 C

ORPORATION

Sales and Technical Assistance

1825 Research Way

Salt Lake City, Utah  84119

Toll Free  800-945-7730

Telephone  801-975-7200

FAX  801-977-0087

FAX-On-Demand 800-695-8110

Worldwide Web Page @ http:\\www.gentner.com

Gentner Part No.  800-035-001 (Rev. 2.00)